1.pngAs Fortune reports in a new feature story this week, employers are increasingly looking beyond traditional credentials to find job candidates whose life experiences show their “grit.” That term is loosely defined as courage, perseverance, resilience, creativity, a knack for problem-solving and an openness to learning-and it may be a better proxy for success than any posh internship or Ivy League degree.《财富》杂志不久前的一篇特写报道提到,如今用人单位通过过往经历寻找具有“坚韧”品质的求职者时,越来越关注非传统的标准。“坚韧”的含义很宽泛,涵盖了勇气、坚持、韧性、创新、善于解决问题和渴望学习的开放心态。拥有坚韧的品质可能比大牌公司实习经历或者常春藤盟校的学位都更可能成功。For examples of people whose grit propelled them to the top, you may not have to look any further than the corner office. Complex challenges early in life helped these six current and former chief executives develop skills that got them to the pinnacles of their professions.如果想找性格坚韧者出人头地的例子,看看企业高管就可以。以下六位现任和前首席执行官早年都曾面临复杂的挑战,由此磨砺出坚韧的性格,也走上了职业巅峰。Oprah Winfrey, CEO, Harpo Entertainment哈泼娱乐集团公司首席执行官奥普拉.温弗瑞The media mogul has mined her life story-poverty, despair, and sexual abuse starting at age 9-as a source of strength to push through professional barriers, and to inspire millions to do the same. “The reason I’ve been able to be so financially successful is my focus has never, ever for one minute been money,” she says.传媒大腕奥普拉出身贫寒,9岁时被强暴,一度陷入绝望。她将痛苦的经历化为突破职业壁垒的动力,还激励了数百万人。她说:“我之所以能赚很多钱,是因为我努力的目标从来不是金钱。Ursula Burns, Chairwoman, VEON; Former CEO, Xerox荷兰电信巨头VEON董事长、施乐公司前首席执行官乌尔苏拉.伯恩斯Her family was so poor that her single mother traded office cleaning for health care. But Burns’ early aptitude for math won her a scholarship and an internship at Xerox , where she would compete her way to the top. “I’m a black lady from the Lower East Side,” she says. “Not a lot intimidates me.”伯恩斯家中非常贫穷,单身母亲为了筹钱治病只得从事办公室清洁工作。伯恩斯年轻时就显示数学天赋,赢得了奖学金和在施乐公司实习的机会,她也在施乐走上了职业道路的巅峰。“我是黑人女孩,在纽约(以贫民窟和廉租公寓闻名的)下东区长大。没什么事能吓住我。”她这样表示。Howard Schultz, Executive Chairman, Starbucks星巴克执行董事长霍华德.舒尔茨Schultz grew up in public housing in Brooklyn, surrounded by poverty, and was the first in his family to go to college (on a football scholarship). After training in sales, he launched the company that would later buy Starbucks. “In the course of the year I spent trying to raise money, I spoke to 242 people, and 217 of them said no,” he says.舒尔茨小时候家住在纽约布鲁克林区的公屋,周围都是贫民。(凭借美式橄榄球的奖学金)他成为家里第一个读大学的人。经过销售岗位的历练,他成立了一家公司,此后收购了星巴克。他说:“想尽办法募资的那一年,我和242个人谈过,217人都拒绝了我。”Sean Combs, CEO, Sean John美国男装品牌Sean John首席执行官肖恩.科姆斯Combs launched a generation of hip-hop talent and made a lasting imprint in fashion. But his story could have turned out much differently: His drug dealer father was killed when he was 3. “It made me work even harder,” he recently tweeted. “We never got to share the moments that made me a man?…?but he lives in my spirit.”科姆斯发掘了一代说唱人才,还影响了时尚界。但他的人生原本可能走上一条截然不同的路:他的父亲贩毒,在他三岁时遇害。他最近在社交网站Twitter发帖回忆:“幼年丧父的经历让我更发奋工作。我长大成人的过程没法跟父亲分享……但他一直活在我心里。”Satya Nadella, CEO, Microsoft微软首席执行官萨蒂亚.纳德拉Nadella was climbing the ranks at Microsoft when life complexity hit. Zain, the eldest of his three children with wife Anu, was born quadriplegic and visually impaired. “It has had a profound impact on how I think, lead, and relate to people,” he has said, moving empathy and resilience to the forefront of his thinking.纳德拉在微软公司努力奋进时,遭受到命运不公的打击。他和妻子阿努育有三个孩子,老大扎印生下来就四肢瘫痪,视觉受损。他曾说:“这件事深刻影响到我思考、领导和与人交往的方式。”此后他考虑问题时会首先抱有同理心,而且适时调整。Geisha Williams, CEO, PG.E天然气和电力公司PG.E首席执行官盖莎.威廉姆斯Her parents fled Cuba when Williams was 5; by 7, she was her parents’ main translator in talks with lawyers and accountants at groceries they owned in New Jersey. Mentors encouraged her early on: “I went from thinking I could be a manager to thinking I could do something much bigger,” she told Fortune.五岁那年,威廉姆斯的父母逃离古巴奔赴美国。七岁时,她在家人开的家杂货店里当起了翻译,帮着跟律师和会计交流。她告诉《财富》杂志,导师们很早就开始鼓励她:“我的思想发生转变,之前想当个经理,后来觉得我也可以做些更了不起的事。”