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风靡美国的伪中国菜

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2016-08-18 15:33  来源:
风靡美国的伪中国菜/Chinese Food Not From China
(节选自《英语世界》2015年第8期)
These staples from your neighborhood Chinese restaurant are more American than anything. 美国街头中餐馆的这些主打菜其实是地道的美国货。 美文选刊|风靡美国的伪中国菜 文/吉尔·浅川 译/袁静馨 贺莺 By Gil Asakawa Growing up in New York City as the daughter of immigrants from China, it didn't occur to New York Times reporter Jennifer 8. Lee that the Chinese food she loved might not be "authentic". She discovered the cultural gap when she traveled to China after graduating from Harvard University with a degree in applied mathematics and economics. 李竞出生于一个华裔移民家庭,从小在纽约长大,曾在《纽约时报》当过记者,她以前从未想过自己一往情深的中餐可能并不“地道”。在获得哈佛大学应用数学与经济学学位之后,她前往中国,发现了两国中餐文化的差异。 "The food we were eating there in some ways resembled what my mom cooked, but in no way resembled what we ate in American Chinese restaurants," says the author of 2008's The Fortune Cookie[1] Chronicles, an engaging history of Chinese food in America. “我们(在中国)吃到的食物和妈妈的手艺大同小异,但是和在美国中餐馆吃到的迥然不同。”李竞说道。2008年,她出版了《幸运签语饼纪事》一书,追溯中餐在美国有趣的发展史。 [1] fortune cookies 幸运签语饼,国外中餐馆提供的一种空心薄脆,内藏小纸条,掰开后可以读到纸条上印的签语。 Her biggest surprise during research for the book was discovering that fortune cookies were actually of Japanese origin. 在著书调研的过程中,最让她惊奇的莫过于发现幸运签语饼其实起源于日本。 Lee left journalism after her book was published and now is cofounder of Rooster, a mobile app that serializes books into chunks[2] designed to be read on smartphones and fit busy readers' lives. She also coproduced a documentary that screened at the 2014 Tribeca Film Festival[3], The Search for General Tso, which focuses on the most popular Chinese takeout dish in America. 该书出版后她便辞去记者一职,目前是手机应用程序Rooster的联合创始人。该款程序将书籍切分连载,供智能手机用户阅读,适用于生活忙碌的读者。她还与人合作出品了一部纪录片,2014年在纽约翠贝卡电影节上映,名为《寻味“左宗棠鸡”》,介绍了这道在美国最受欢迎的中餐外卖。 [2] chunk 块。 [3] 纽约翠贝卡电影节,由美国电影制片人简·罗森泰以及著名演员罗伯特·德尼罗在“9·11”事件后发起并创办。因由翠贝卡电影学院成功举办而得名。 Neither the book nor the documentary has dampened Lee's appetite for American Chinese food, though. 不过,著作也好,纪录片也罢,都没有冲淡李竞对美式中餐的热爱。 "It's full of fat and sugar. What's not to like?" she asks, laughing. "It's like a taste of home. These are all very American and comforting." “高脂多糖,没理由不喜欢吧?”李竞笑着问,“吃起来有种家的味道。带有浓郁的美国味,特别舒心。” Here are five familiar "Chinese" menu items in America—and the truth about their origins. 下面我们挑选美国常见的五道“中式”菜肴,说说这些菜品的真实由来。 Fortune Cookies 幸运签语饼 "In America, they're a symbol of China, but in China people are really confused by them," recalls Lee, who handed out fortune cookies during a trip to the country. "They take a bite, and they're surprised that there's a piece of paper inside." Lee learned that cookies with paper inside them can be traced back to Kyoto, Japan, and were first made in the United States by Japanese bakers. During World War II, when people of Japanese ancestry were imprisoned in internment camps[4], the Chinese took over manufacturing them. They then became a fixture in Chinese restaurants here as a postmeal[5] treat. 李竞回忆说:“在美国,幸运签语饼是中国的象征,但在中国,人们真被它搞糊涂了。”有一次去中国,李竞把幸运签语饼分给当地人,“他们咬上一口,惊讶地发现里面居然有张小纸条。”李竞了解到将纸条放入饼干这一做法起源于日本京都,这种饼起初是由日本烘焙师傅在美国制作的。二战期间,很多在美的日裔人士都被关进了拘留营,于是中国人接替了制作幸运签语饼的工作。后来幸运签语饼逐渐成为美国中餐馆必备的一道饭后甜点。 [4] internment camp 拘留营。 [5] postmeal 餐后。 General Tso's Chicken 左宗棠鸡 This dish of fried chicken pieces coated with a sweet and savory sauce is among the most familiar of Chinese menu items. There really was a General Tso, a Qing Dynasty leader in the 1800s, but "it's not a dish that the general ever ate," Lee says. "It was introduced about 1974 and popularized in the 1980s." Like many dishes served up for American tastes, sugar was added to sweeten the dish. 炸鸡块裹上鲜甜酱汁,这是中餐菜单上美国人最熟悉的菜式之一。中国历史上确有左宗棠其人,是19 世纪清代的将领,但李竞认为:“左宗棠并没有吃过这道菜。左宗棠鸡大约于1974 年引进美国,20世纪80年代风靡全美。”与许多迎合美国人口味的菜品相似,这道菜加重了甜味。 Beef and Broccoli 西兰花炒牛柳 Another popular dish, beef with broccoli, is a wok-fried combination of those two ingredients. It became popular in the 1920s. While China is one of the largest growers of broccoli today, "it is not a Chinese vegetable," Lee says. The dish was an adaptation that used ingredients available in America, in this case brought by other immigrants. "Broccoli was an Italian vegetable," she adds. 另一道颇受欢迎的菜式,西兰花炒牛柳,是将西兰花与牛柳放入锅中爆炒而成。这道菜20 世纪20年代开始在美国流行。虽然中国是当今世界最大的西兰花生产国之一,但是李竞指出,“西兰花并不是中国本土蔬菜”。这道菜是用美国能获取的食材改造而成的,这种食材由其他国家的移民带入美国。李竞补充说:“西兰花原产自意大利。” Egg Rolls 蛋卷 All Asian cultures seem to serve a form of egg rolls—small tubes of meat or vegetables rolled in a wrapper. Chinese spring rolls are light and small and come in translucent wrappers. The concept of bigger egg rolls deep-fried in a thicker skin was invented in America. 似乎所有的亚洲文化都有形似蛋卷的食物——外皮包裹着肉馅或菜馅,卷成小管状。中式春卷轻盈小巧,外皮晶莹剔透。而美式蛋卷个头较大,外皮肥厚,高温油炸而成,是在美国发明的。 …… 美文选刊|风靡美国的伪中国菜

杂志简介

由商务印书馆主办的《英语世界》杂志创刊于1981年。该刊是一本面向大学师生及其他英语爱好者的阅读学习类刊物,系中国第一家英汉对照的英语学习杂志。该刊宗旨是“文拓视野、译悦心灵”,向以内容新颖、形式活泼而著称。创刊以来,由于选文隽永雅致,刊中文章经常受到《读者》、《青年文摘》等杂志转载。先后荣获 “编校质量奖”、“全国百种重点社科期刊”、“国家期刊提名奖”、 “优秀期刊奖”等荣誉。2009年,中国期刊协会授予该刊“新中国60年有影响力的期刊”证书。
欢迎在邮局订购《英语世界》杂志,邮发代号为2-445

主编简介

  • 陈羽纶陈羽纶(1917~2010),《英语世界》杂志首任主编,教授级资深编审。 曾多年担任英语教科书、英语读物、英语词典的编译及审订工作。1988年作为翻译家被收入《中国翻译家词典》,1988~1989年美国纽约大学、英国布鲁内尔大学与英国基尔大学访问学者。1991年被国家人事部定为早期回国定居有特殊贡献专家,享受国务院发放一级津贴待遇。2003年12月获中国出版工作者协会、中国韬奋基金会颁发的第八届中国韬奋出版奖。
  • 徐式谷徐式谷(1935~ ),江苏扬州人,《英语世界》第二任主编,北京商务印书馆编审,前副总编辑,中国译协理事、副秘书长,重庆大学兼职教授,第九届、第十届全国政协委员。有《笛福文选》等译著多种,并发表过多篇译学文论,被中国翻译协会授予“资深翻译家”称号,被中国期刊协会授予“新中国60年有影响力期刊人”称号。
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